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    Adding References Manually

    The RefWorks AccuCite feature enables picking a citation style when entering or editing a reference. Recommended fields based on the selected style are displayed indicating which fields should be used to create the most accurate bibliography entry.

    To manually add a new reference:

    1. Click the New Reference button, or from the References menu select Add New.
    2. From the Fields Used By drop-down list select a citation style.
      If you do not see the desired style, you must add it to your Favorites using the Output Style Manager
      AccuCite separates the fields into two groups: Fields Used by (Output Style Name) and Additional Fields. Your reference entry may not have information for all fields, and fields used by a particular style may not be required to save the record.
    3. Select a reference type from the Reference Type drop-down list. The reference fields relevant to the selected style and reference type are displayed. Hover over a field name for related comments. Scroll down to add additional fields.
    4. Enter information in the displayed fields.
      If the reference type you need is not available, select the Generic reference type and add the custom fields that you need.
    5. Under Add to folder, select the folder or folders where you want to store the reference. The selected folder name(s) will be displayed below the drop-down list.
      If you do not select a folder, the reference is placed in your main database and is considered unfilled (accessed by searching, by clicking the link in the Folders area that indicates how many unfilled records you have or by selecting View, View Folder, Not in Folder).
      Files cannot be attached until after the reference is saved. For details on attaching files, see Attaching Files to a Reference.
    6. Click on Additional Fields.
    7. Determine if your source type is Print or Electronic . The source type determines which fields to use in the bibliography.
    8. Select an Output Language from the drop-down list. The Output Language is the language in which the reference is entered or typed in your database. RefWorks may apply specific handling and formatting for a multi-language bibliography. Refer to Language Specific Handling and Formatting.
    9. Optional- Enter information in the additional fields. There are a number of fields that may be used to help locate or identify a reference: ISSN/ISBN, Accession Number, Language, Classification, Availability, Author Address/Affiliation, Call Number and Original Foreign Title. Other fields are more specific as the information they include is used frequently in bibliographies or in RefWorks itself.
    10. Click Save Reference or Save & Add New to add another new reference.

    Language Specific Handling and Formatting: 

    Special handling and formatting occurs only when you are formatting a paper using Write-N-Cite, One Line/Cite View, Manual Entry or from the Bibliography area of RefWorks. It does not occur when using the Print feature in RefWorks or when sorting references for viewing within your RefWorks database.

    Currently, only certain languages have special formatting and handling: English, Catalan, French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.

    A character is appended to the ordinal value as follows:


    If the ordinal value = 1 an 'r' is appended to the ordinal value.

    If the ordinal value = 2 an 'n' is appended.

    If the ordinal value = 3 an 'r' is appended.

    If the ordinal value = 4 a 't 'is appended.

    For any other ordinal value, an 'e' is appended.

    Italian, Portuguese and Spanish

    A superscript "a" is appended


    If the ordinal value = 1 a superscript "re" is appended

    For any other ordinal value, a superscript "e" is appended


    The ordinal value is appended with a period

    Leading Articles in Bibliographies are handled as follows: 

    German words ignored in title sorting:

    der, die, das, des, dem, den, ein, eine, eines, einer, einem

    Italian words ignored in title sorting:

    il, i, gli, la, le, lo, l', un', uno, una, dei, delle, degli, della, dell' al alle all' ed<

    Spanish words ignored in title sorting:

    el, la, los, las, lo, un, uno, una, unos, unas, de al de

    Attaching Files to a Reference 

    You can attach files when adding a new reference manually or when editing an existing reference. Attachments can be any type of computer file.

    The attachment feature is available for organization-wide subscriptions only. If you do not have the ability to add attachments to your records, contact your local RefWorks Administrators for additional information. This feature is currently not available for users who have purchased an individual license to the service.
    • Adding an attachment to a reference is different from the links or URLs because the file you attach is stored on RefWorks servers. Attachments can be shared using one of the sharing options (RefShare, if supported by your Administrator, Read-Only Password, Backup/Restore).
    • Viewing the attachment requires the appropriate software for that object type.
    • You can attach multiple files to a reference, each up to 20MB. There may also be a per user limit designated by your institution. You will receive a message alerting you if you exceed the file size limit or the user limit.
    • A paper clip icon is displayed indicating a file attachment.
    • Attachment file names can be searched from the quick Search box or by searching the Attachment field in Search > Advanced.

    To attach files:

    1. Create a reference as described above. Make sure to save the reference before attaching a file. If you do not save the reference before attaching a file, will cause data be lost.
    2. Scroll to the Attachments area (above the Additional Fields section).
    3. Click Browse to locate the file you wish to add (one file can be attached at a time).
    4. Click Open to upload your file.
    There is a 20 MB per file attachment limit. There are also overall account attachment limits determined by your Organization's RefWorks Administrator.
    • Optional - repeat to attach additional files.
    • You need to click Save Reference again if you made changes to the reference information.

    Using the Term Assistant 

    When entering a name field, journal title or descriptor, the Term Assistant  follows the characters you are typing and displays any closely matching existing values for you to select and complete your entry. Select a value by double-clicking the term you want to include.

    Any time you add a name, title or descriptor that is not in your database, RefWorks will automatically add it to the Term Assistant.

    You can disable the Term Assistant in the Customize screen (accessible from the top right) under Reference Edit Options . Where it says Enable Term Assistant select No and click Save Customized Settings .

    The Term Assistantdoes not work with Safari at this time.

    Using Text Attributes in a Reference 

    Requires Internet Explorer 5.5 or above or Mozilla 1.3 or above.

    Bold, italics, superscript, subscript, and underline are options for specific text fields within a particular reference type. They should be used only for specific terms,  not for periodical or book titles.

    Any attributes applied manually will work in conjunction with any text attributes defined by the style. For example: In your reference you have italicized the words Homo sapiens in your title, and your style requires that the title be underlined. In the output the term will appear as Homo sapiens.


    Include a text attribute in one of the following ways:

    1. Select the attribute you want to use by clicking the appropriate button located directly above the text entry box. This attribute will be used until you clear it by clicking the attribute button.
    2. Type your text, highlight it and click on the attribute button you want to use.

    Reference Field Descriptions 

    With the exception of the author, editor and abbreviated journal name fields, ending punctuation should be removed. RefWorks will add the correct punctuation when formatting a bibliography.

    The following fields appear in the New Reference window.

    Primary Authors, Secondary Authors, Tertiary Authors, Quaternary Authors, Quinary Authors, and Sextenary Authors 

    Author names should be entered last name first followed by a comma, first name (or first initial followed by a period), and middle initial followed by a period. Each entry must be separated by a semi-colon. For example:

    Smith, J.R.; Jones,Robert K.; Adams,Mary; etc.

    If the Author has a title, place a comma after the middle initial and add the title followed by a period. For example:

    Green,Adam J.,Dr.; Berg,James,II; etc.

    RefWorks automatically formats the author names correctly when importing data from a predefined import filter. If there isn't an author listed leave the Author field empty. The style will determine what should be used in this case. RefWorks will add author names to the index when you save the reference.

    Entering author names correctly is important because RefWorks generates bibliographies in a variety of styles that have specific requirements for author names. Therefore, RefWorks must know which text is the last name, first name, and middle initial in order to format the bibliography correctly.

    The Secondary Author field (under Additional Fields) should contain Editors, Tertiary Author field Series Editors, Quaternary for Translator, Quinary for Compiler, Sextenary for Website Editor.

    Authors should be entered exactly the way they should appear in the Output Style. For example, Government Printing Office could be entered as GPO or Government Printing Office depending upon what you want to appear in the formatted bibliography. The program will display an alert message saying that an author name has been entered incorrectly; ignore the message in this case.

    Primary Title, Secondary Title and Tertiary Title 

    The Primary Title field contains the main title of the particular reference. For example, in Book, Section the Primary Title would be the Section Title. The Secondary Title would be the Book Title and the Tertiary Title might be the Series Title. No punctuation should be placed at the end of the title.

    Shortened Title 

    This field may be used if a particular output format requires a shortened title in either the in-text citation or a subsequent citing of a reference in the bibliography. The user must enter this title manually - it will not be imported.

    Periodical Full 

    When entering a Journal Article reference, enter the full title of the publication in this field.

    Pub Year 

    It is recommended that you use the Publication Year field for a four digit year as it will often be used in Output Formats when creating bibliographies. 


    Enter a journal volume in this field or, in the case of a Report, the Report Number or for a Web Page the Year Accessed.


    Enter the Journal Issue Number in this field or, in the case of other reference types, the Book Section Number, Patent Number, or Month/Day Accessed for a Web Page.

    Periodical Abbrev 

    An abbreviated title, such the Medline abbreviation, may be entered here. The abbreviated journal name should include periods, i.e. Am.Behav.Sci. 

    Pub Date Free Form 

    Use this field for date information such as season or month and day. The year should always be entered in the Publication Year field. Check your output style for the specific date formatting required (i.e., DD/MM, DD Month, MM/DD, etc.). If you have selected an output style at the top of the New Reference form and a green checkmark appears next to this field, click on or mouse-over the checkmark to see if specific details date details are included with the style.

    Start Page and Other Pages 

    The type of page data you enter in this field depends on the reference type. For example, Journal Articles and Book Sections should have a Start Page, and the Other Page should be the last page of the reference. In a Book, Whole reference the Start Page field is called and should contain the total number of pages in the book. The Other Pages field should not need to be filled in. As many bibliographic styles require this information in their output, be sure to enter both fields where appropriate.


    Most references have descriptors assigned to assist you in locating the reference in the future. Use a semi-colon to separate each descriptor. Imported references have the words assigned by the author and/or data provider, although you can add your own personal descriptors to these references as well. Descriptors automatically are added to the index list when they are imported or when you add them from within RefWorks.


    Author abstracts are imported into this field. Text may be typed in manually or copied and pasted from another source.

    Notes and Personal Notes 

    Add your own personal notes and comments in these fields.


    Enter only the name of the publisher here.

    Place of Publication 

    Enter as much of the address of the publisher in this field as you like. Keep in mind, however, that Output Formats requiring this information generally only require City, City and State or City and Country, not street addresses. Imported references include as much information as provided in the data.


    This field should contain information on the data provider and the specific database (e.g., CSA Medline or OCLC Agricola). In the Electronic Journal reference type, some Output Formats require that you cite this information.

    Links and DOI (Digital Object

    The links field is used to store any related URL that would be used in your bibliography to link back to the article or information you are citing. The DOI field can be used to store a DOI name in relation to your reference.

    Users can also use a universal naming convention to make network shared files available to all users. For example, file:// c:\ windows\win.exe under UNC might carry the identifier file://\\machinename\sharename\windows\win.exe.

    Some firewall or security software or security settings in your browser may block links to documents stored on your hard-drive. If you find you are having trouble linking, check your security settings.

    Database, Data Source and Retrieved Date 

    Because these fields are not filled in when importing data, you need to enter them manually. The information is used when citing electronic sources in certain output formats that require database source information be included in the bibliography.

    Identifying Phrase 

    This field should be used for a phrase you want included for this reference in a particular output. For example, in a Journal Article Reference that you read online you may want to say "Full text retrieved from" followed by the Data Source. In the output format you would add the Identifying Phrase field followed by the Data Source field for a Journal Article Reference type. If you have filled in these fields, they will print in the bibliography. If you have not (you read the paper article in the library) they will not print in the bibliography.

    User Definable Fields 1-15 

    There are 15 separate User Definable fields to which users may add personal notes and comments. They are not used for importing purposes. They may be searched by using the Quick Search feature.


    You can use this for any supplemental URLs related to your reference. Entries in the URL field need to be separated by a semi-colon.

    You can create a URL to link to a file located on your local computer. To do this, precede the file name with file:, e.g., file:// C:\ reflinks\sample.txt. The file name and the path name cannot contain spaces. To work around this you must enter a %20 to replace the space. For example, to link to your My Documents folder you would enter file:// C:\My%20Documents\sample.txt. You may want to set up a specific folder on your computer for items you want to link to from RefWorks.

    Users can also use a universal naming convention to make network shared files available to all users. For example, file:// c:\ windows\win.exe under UNC might carry the identifier file://\\machinename\sharename\windows\win.exe.

    Some firewall or security software or security settings in your browser may block links to documents stored on your hard-drive. If you find you are having trouble linking, check your security settings.

    Sponsoring Library and Sponsoring Library Location 

    These fields are used to indicate the name and location of the library where the online data was accessed from. Required by the MLA bibliography style.

    Cited References 

    Includes the references that were cited by the author for the specific reference stored in your RefWorks database.

    Website Title, Website Editors, Website Version and Date of Electronic Publication 

    These fields are used to store additional information when citing a webpage or other electronic information.

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