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    Adding References Manually

    RefWorks has a feature called AccuCite which allows you to pick a potential output style when entering or editing a reference. This feature will display recommended fields related to the selected output style so you will know exactly what fields should be used to create the most accurate bibliography entry.

    To manually add a new reference:
    1. Click the New Reference button or from the References menu select Add New.
    2. Select a potential output style from the View Fields Used By drop-down.
      If you do not see your output style listed, you will need to add it to your Favorites using the Output Style Manager.

      AccuCite separates the fields into two groups -- those in the Fields Used by (Output Style Name) and Additional Fields.Your reference entry may not have information for all fields -- and the fields used by a particular output style are not required in order to save the record. Mousing-over the field names recommended for your style will display field-specific comments regarding your selected output style.

    3. Under Ref Type, select the reference type you want to add.
    4. Each reference type has been assigned fields (e.g., Author and Periodical, Full name) that are appropriate for that particular type. When you select a reference type, the remaining fields change. The active fields, those that have been assigned to the selected Ref Type, appear at the top of the list in black type. Enter information in the fields displayed.
    5. Under Add to folder, select the folder or folders where you want to store your reference. The folder name(s) will be displayed below the drop-down after you select them.
    • If you do not select a folder, the reference is placed in your main database and is considered unfilled (accessed by searching, by clicking on the link in the Folders area that indicates how many unfilled records you have or by selecting View, View Folder, Not in Folder).
    • Files cannot be attached until after the reference is saved. For details on attaching files, see Attaching Files to a Reference.
    Click on Additional Fields to:
    1. Determine if your reference is for a Print or Electronic source in the Source Type drop-down. The source type tells the output style which fields of data to use in your bibliography.
    2. Select the Output Language. The Output Language should reflect the language the reference is entered or typed in within your database. By making a selection from the Output Language drop-down, RefWorks may apply special handling and formatting for a bibliography which is very important in multi-language bibliographies.
    Details of Special Handling and Formatting:

    Special handling and formatting occurs only when you are formatting a paper using Write-N-Cite, One Line/Cite View, Manual Entry or from the Bibliography area of RefWorks. It does not occur when using the Print feature in RefWorks or when sorting references for viewing within your RefWorks database.

    Currently, only certain languages have special formatting and handling: English, Catalan, French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.

    Catalan If the ordinal value = 1 then a 'r' is appended to the ordinal value. If the ordinal value = 2 a 'n' is appended to the ord value. If the ordinal value = 3 a 'r' is appended to ordinal value. If the ordinal value = 4 a 't 'is appended to the ordinal value. If the ordinal value anything else, an 'e' appends the ordinal value.
    Italian, Portuguese and Spanish A super scripted "a" is appended to the end of the ordinal value
    French If the ordinal value = 1 then a super-scripted "re" appended to the end of the ordinal value. If the ordinal value is anything other than a 1, then it is appended with a super-scripted "e"
    German The ordinal value is appended with a period
    Special Handling of Leading Articles in Bibliographies:
    German words ignored in title sorting: der, die, das, des, dem, den, ein, eine, eines, einer, einem
    Italian words ignored in title sorting: il, i, gli, la, le, lo, l', un', uno, una, dei, delle, degli, ,della, dell' al alle all' ed<
    Spanish words ignored in title sorting: el, la, los, las, lo, un, uno, una, unos, unas, de al de
    1. Enter information in fields that were not assigned to the selected reference type. These fields are optional. You can enter information in them and it appears in the reference list. But you are not required to enter information in them. There are a number of fields that may be used to help locate or identify a reference. They are: ISSN/ISBN, Accession Number, Language, Classification, Availability, Author Address/Affiliation, Call Number and Original Foreign Title. Other fields are designed to be more specific as the information they include is used frequently in bibliographies or in the RefWorks program itself.
    2. When you've finished entering information, click Save Reference to complete your entry.
    3. To add another new reference, click Save & Add New.

    Attaching Files to a Reference

    You can attach files when adding a new reference manually or editing an existing reference. Attachments can be any type of computer file that you want to associate with the bibliographic information you store in your RefWorks database.

    The attachment feature is available for organization-wide subscriptions only. If you do not have the ability to add attachments to your records, contact your local RefWorks Administrators for additional information. This feature is currently not available for users who have purchased an individual license to the service.
    • Adding attachments to a reference is different from the existing links or URLS because the actual file(s)you attach are stored on RefWorks servers. Attachments can also be shared using one of the RefWorks’ sharing options (RefShare (if allowed by your Administrator), Read-Only Password, Backup/Restore).
    • In order to view or play the file attachments, you will need the appropriate software for that object type on the computer you are accessing the file from.
    • There is no limit to the number of files you can attach to your reference, but there are file size limits on aper user basis, designated by your Organization. The maximum size of any individual attachment is 20 MB. You will receive a message alerting you if you exceed either the file size limit or the limit set for your individual account.
    • A paper clip icon is displayed indicating a file attachment.
    • Attachment file names are searchable from the quick Search box or by searching the Attachment field in Advanced Search.
    To attach files:
    1. Select References, Add New.
    2. Complete the appropriate reference information.
    3. Save the reference by clicking on the Save Reference button. If you do not save your reference first, any data will be lost when you attach your file(s).
    4. Scroll back to top to the Attachments area.
    5. Click the Browse button to locate the file you wish to add (only 1 file can be attached at a time).
    6. Click Add Attachment to upload your file.
      There is a 20 MB per file attachment limit. There are also overall account attachment limits determined by your Organization's RefWorks Administrator.
    7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for EACH file you wish to attach.
    8. You do not need to Save Reference again, unless you have made changes to any of the reference information.

    Using the Term Assistant

    When entering an author name (or any name field), journal title or descriptor, the Term Assistant opens follows the characters you are typing and displays any closely matching, existing values in a box for you to select to complete your entry. You select data values from the Term Assistant by double-clicking on the name (or journal title or descriptor) you want to include and the Term Assistant places the data in the field.

    Any time you add a new name, title or descriptor to a reference that is not already in your database, RefWorks will automatically add it to the Term Assistant.

    You can disable the Term Assistant in the Customize area under the Reference Edit Options section. Just select No, where it says Enable Term Assistant and click the Save Customized Settings button.

    • FireFox users must use their mouse and click in the field (authors, periodical title or descriptors) in order for the Term Assistant to display. Tabbing into the field will not display the Term Assistant.
    • The Term Assistant does not work with Safari at this time.

    Using Text Attributes in a Reference

    (Must have Internet Explorer 5.5 or above or Mozilla 1.3 or above.)

    Bold, italics, super and sub script, and underline are options for specific text fields within a particular reference type. This should only be used for specific terms, e.g. species names, not for titles of periodicals or books.

    Any attributes applied manually will work in conjunction with any text attributes defined in the output format. For example: In your reference you have italicized the words Homo sapiens in your title.

    Your output format requires the title to be underlined, so in your final output it will appear as Homo sapiens.

    To include a text attribute:

    1. Select the attribute you want to use by clicking on the appropriate button located directly above the text entry box.
    2. Type your text (the attribute will continue to be used until you deselect it by clicking the attribute button) or you can type your text, highlight it and click on the attribute button you want to use.
    3. Deselect the text attribute by clicking on the appropriate button.

    Reference Field Descriptions

    With the exception of the author, editor and abbreviated journal name fields, ending punctuation should be removed. RefWorks will add the correct punctuation when formatting a bibliography.

    The following fields appear in the New Reference window.

    Primary Authors, Secondary Authors, Tertiary Authors, Quaternary Authors, Quinary Authors, and Sextenary Authors

    Author names should be entered last name first followed by a comma, first name (or first initial followed by a period), and middle initial followed by a period. Each entry must be separated by a semi-colon. For example:

    Smith, J.R.; Jones,Robert K.; Adams,Mary; etc.

    If the Author has a title, place a comma after the middle initial and add the title followed by a period. For example:

    Green,Adam J.,Dr.; Berg,James,II; etc.

    RefWorks automatically formats the author names correctly when importing data from a predefined import filter. If there isn't an author listed leave the Author field empty. The output style will determine what should be used in this case. Also, RefWorks adds author names to the index list when you save the reference.

    Entering author names correctly is important because RefWorks generates bibliographies in a variety of formats that have specific requirements for author names. Therefore, RefWorks must know which name is the last name, first name, and middle initial in order to format the bibliography correctly.

    The Secondary Author field should contain Editors, Tertiary Author field Series Editors, Quaternary for Translator, Quinary for Compiler, Sextenary for Website Editor.

    Corporate Authors should be entered exactly the way they should appear in the Output Style. For example, Government Printing Office could be entered as GPO or Government Printing Office depending upon what you want to appear in the formatted bibliography. The program will display an alert message saying that an author name has been entered incorrectly; ignore the message in this case.

    Primary Title, Secondary Title and Tertiary Title

    The Primary Title field contains the main title of the particular reference. For example, in Book, Section the Primary Title would be the Section Title. The Secondary Title would be the Book Title and the Tertiary Title might be the Series Title. No punctuation should be placed at the end of the title.

    Shortened Title

    This field may be used if a particular output format requires a shortened title in either the in-text citation or a subsequent citing of a reference in the bibliography. The user must enter this title manually - it will not be imported.

    Periodical Full

    When entering a Journal Article reference, enter the full title of the publication in this field.

    Periodical Abbrev

    An abbreviated title, such the Medline abbreviation, may be entered here. The abbreviated journal name should include periods, i.e. Am.Behav.Sci.


    Enter a journal volume in this field or, in the case of a Report, the Report Number or for a Web Page the Year Accessed.


    Enter the Journal Issue Number in this field or, in the case of other reference types, the Book Section Number, Patent Number, or Month/Day Accessed for a Web Page.

    Publication Year

    It is recommended that you use the Publication Year field for a four digit year as it will often be used in Output Formats when creating bibliographies.

    Pub Date Free Form

    Use this field for date information such as season or month and day. The year should always be entered in the Publication Year field. Check your output style for the specific date formatting required (i.e., DD/MM, DD Month, MM/DD, etc.). If you have selected an output style at the top of the New Reference form and a green checkmark appears next to this field, click on or mouse-over the checkmark to see if specific details date details are included with the style.

    Start Page and Other Pages

    The type of page data you enter in this field depends on the reference type. For example, Journal Articles and Book Sections should have a Start Page, and the Other Page should be the last page of the reference. In a Whole Book reference the Start Page field is called Total Pages and should contain the total number of pages in the book. The Other Pages field should not need to be filled in. As many bibliographic styles require this information in their output, be sure to enter both fields where appropriate.


    Most references have descriptors assigned to assist you in locating the reference in the future. Use a semi-colon to separate each descriptor. Imported references have the words assigned by the author and/or data provider, although you can add your own personal descriptors to these references as well. Descriptors automatically are added to the index list when they are imported or when you add them from within RefWorks.


    Author abstracts are imported into this field. Text may be typed in manually or copied and pasted from another source.

    Notes and Personal Notes

    Add your own personal notes and comments in these fields.


    Enter only the name of the publisher here.

    Place of Publication

    Enter as much of the address of the publisher in this field as you like. Keep in mind, however, that Output Formats requiring this information generally only require City, City and State or City and Country - not street addresses. Imported references include as much information as provided in the data.


    This field should contain information on the data provider and the specific database (e.g., CSA Medline or OCLC Agricola). In the Electronic Journal reference type, some Output Formats require that you cite this information.

    Links and DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

    The links field is used to store any related URL that would be used in your bibliography to link back to the article or information you are citing. The DOI field can be used to store a DOI name in relation to your reference.

    To link to a file located on your local computer, precede the file name with file:, e.g., file:// C:\reflinks\sample.txt. The file name and the path name cannot contain spaces. To work around this you must enter a %20 to replace the space. For example, to link to your folder you would enter file://My DocumentsC:\My%20Documents\sample.txt. You may want to set up a specific folder on your computer for items you want to link to from RefWorks.

    Users can also use a universal naming convention to make network shared files available to all users. For example, file:// c:\ windows\win.exe under UNC might carry the identifier file://\\machinename\sharename\windows\win.exe.

    Some firewall or security software or security settings in your browser may block links to documents stored on your hard-drive. If you find you are having trouble linking, check your security settings.

    Database, Data Source and Retrieved Date

    These fields will not be filled in when importing data. They will need to be manually entered by the user. The information will be used when citing electronic sources in certain output formats that require database source information be included in the bibliography.

    Identifying Phrase

    This field should be used for a phrase you want included for this reference in a particular output. For example, in a Journal Article Reference that you read online you may want to say "Full text retrieved from" followed by the Data Source. In the output format you would add the Identifying Phrase field followed by the Data Source field for a Journal Article Reference type. If these fields have been filled in by you they will print in the bibliography. If they have not (you read the paper article in the library) they will not print in the bibliography.

    User Definable Fields 1-15

    There are fifteen separate User Definable fields to which users may add personal notes and comments. They are not used for importing purposes. They may be searched by using the Quick Search feature.


    This can be used for any supplemental URLs related to your reference. Entries in the URL field need to be separated by a semi-colon.

    You can create a URL to link to a file located on your local computer. To do this, precede the file name with file:, e.g., file:// C:\ reflinks\sample.txt. The file name and the path name cannot contain spaces. To work around this you must enter a %20 to replace the space. For example, to link to your My Documents folder you would enter file:// C:\My%20Documents\sample.txt. You may want to set up a specific folder on your computer for items you want to link to from RefWorks.

    Users can also use a universal naming convention to make network shared files available to all users. For example, file:// c:\ windows\win.exe under UNC might carry the identifier file://\\ machinename\sharename\windows\win.exe.

    Some firewall or security software or security settings in your browser may block links to documents stored on your hard-drive. If you find you are having trouble linking, check your security settings.
    Sponsoring Library and Sponsoring Library Location

    These fields are used to indicate the name and location of the library where the online data was accessed from. Required by the MLA bibliography style.

    Cited References

    Includes the references that were cited by the author for the specific reference stored in your RefWorks database.

    Website Title, Website Editors, Website Version and Date of Electronic Publication

    These fields are used to store additional information when citing a webpage or other electronic information.

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