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    Physical to Electronic (P2E) processing

     

    P2E: Physical to Electronic processing

    Most legacy ILS systems have a single format for resources, and for migration purposes, we treat incoming inventory from the ILS as physical.  In Alma, electronic resources have a different database structure than physical resources. In order for the migration programs to change physical resources into electronic resources, you have to indicate which resources to change from physical to electronic (P2E).
    This document gives a general overview of the process.   The format for P2E files and migration form input is described in the Alma Migration Guides for your source ILS.
    Generally, the P2E process consists of:
    • Providing a textual input file to Ex Libris with the relevant ILS BIB numbers, one bib record per line, representing electronic resources and their types (portfolio or database).  The input file is provided along with all of the other input files for the migration process.
    • Identifying which locations indicate an electronic resource by marking the location in the migration form's Alma Location mapping tab.  This will specify which resource(s) to change to electronic for cases where there is physical and electronic material linked to the same bibliographic record that was specified in the p2e input file. 
    • Specifying which tags in the bib and/or holding record contain linking information, typically based on the originating holding or bibliographic record’s 856 |u field or fields. Each linked field will become a separate electronic record in Alma.  Specify this field on the Questionnaire tab of the migration form, in the section labeled P2E.
    • Specifying which field contains a linking note, typically based on the 856 |z if it exists in the source holding or bibliographic record. Specify this field on the Questionnaire tab of the migration form, in the section labeled P2E.
    • You can optionally provide input as to which metadata field in the BIB (or its holdings) record represents the name of the electronic provider/vendor name. Specify this field on the Questionnaire tab of the migration form, in the section labeled P2E.

     

    For each of the three source fields on the Questionnaire tab: only one field/subfield source is allowed across all electronic records.  Only the first instance of the subfield within a field is used.
     

    General overview of process

    The migration programs create at least one electronic resource for each BIB identifier in the p2e file, unless the bib is suppressed - then no electronic resource is made for the bib at all.  
    If no holdings/items are present or if all holdings/items are not marked as electronic, the migration program still creates an electronic resource based on information in the bibliographic record only.
    Ex Libris’ migration processing categorizes input correctly as electronic inventory in Alma (portfolio or database) with the relevant vendor provider association.  None of the e-resources is assigned a service. 
    The p2e process also transforms each electronic record’s associated order, if present, to an electronic type order rather than physical type order.
    As an example, given the following setup
    • a list of bib records, and an indication if the resource for this bib should be a portfolio or database.
    • library/locations which are indicated as being an Electronic Location
    • Linking subfield (P2E_LINK on migration form): for example 856u
    • Note subfield (P2E_NOTE on migration form): for example 856z
    • Provider subfield (P2E_PROVIDER on migration form): for example 940a
    Check for items first
    For each bib listed in the p2e file, the migration processing first checks if there are any items in ONLINE:ELEC.  Actually, it checks for an item in ANY location which is specified as electronic on the Alma Location mapping tab, but for the purposes of the example we will continue to use ONLINE:ELEC.   
    If an item in ONLINE:ELEC is found, each item with this location is designated for conversion to electronic.  The electronic resource created is based on what was specified in the input file (Portfolio or DB) for this bib.
    The resulting e-resource is created with the linking information in an 856u.  If the holding record has at least one 856u, then we use only 856u from the holding.  We use 856u from the bib only if there were no 856u in the holding.
    If there are multiple URLs at the level that the linking source field is found (Holding or Bib), each link field results in an e-inventory record.  It is possible that multiple e-resources are created for a single bib.  See 'Multiple providers/links on the same record', below, for more information. 
    Vendor/provider information for the transformed e-resource is taken from the 940 |a, and the linking note is taken from the 856z.
    If all of the BIB’s items are identified with the above pattern (and thus deleted after a e-resource is generated), the remnant holdings associated with those item records are also removed. 
    Next check itemless holdings
    The migration programs then move on to check for holdings in ONLINE:ELEC (or other specified electronic library/location), checking the 852 $b and $c.  A match for each holdings record is converted to a portfolio with the relevant URL, note, and vendor name population in the same manner as described above for items.  
    After the holding record is transformed, it is deleted.
    If no electronic resource found, transform/generate at bib level
    If there were no items or holdings for the specified bib at all, or if all items/holdings associated with the bib were in a physical location, then an electronic resource is created at the BIB level. In this case, the BIB is left in place, a new e-inventory record is created with the relevant URL, note, and vendor name population.
    In this case, it appears that the P2E process generated an electronic resource out of nothing.
    Using P2E_LINK, P2E_NOTE, and P2E_PROVIDER fields

    When an item or holding record is identified as electronic, when the e-resource is generated, the linking, note, and provider subfields are used in the following order:

    • If at least one linking field (e.g. 856) is found which matches P2E_LINK at the holding level, then any tags at the holding level are used.  The migration programs stop here and do not move to the bib level.
    • If no linking field is found at the holding level, then the migration programs use the linking fields at the bib level (if any).

    In each local ILS, you can answer P2E_LINK, P2E_NOTE, and P2E_PROVIDER in the following manner:

    • Specific indicators: 85641u – only tags with 41 as the indicator is used.
    • No indicator (# is used for a blank character, for example: 8564#u) – only tags with 4 <blank> as an indicator are used.
    • All possible indicators: 8564*u – tags with 4 as the first indicator are used. The second indicator is not taken into account.  The space character operates the same way as an asterisk (*), for example: 8564 u is the same as 8564*u.
    • Special Request: If you need to specify multiple specific indicators, for example 85641 and 85642, it cannot be coded in the migration form but your ExL representative can make a special request to the migration team. Many indicators are possible here (i.e. more than just two). 
    Example P2E_LINK usage

    In the migration form, customer answers for the P2E_LINK question:  85641 u

    With the following bibs listed in the p2e file: 

    Bib 1

    85641 $u http://journal.com/link

    85640 $u http://journal.com/pdf

    Bib 2

    85640 $u http://scientificjournal/pdf

    Because both bibs are listed in the p2e file, they will both have at least one electronic resource created, depending on how many items or holdings are present with electronic resource location.  The p2e process always makes at least one resource if you listed the bib in the p2e file, unless the bib was rejected or suppressed.

    For Bib 1, a resource will be generated for the link for 85641, because that is the only one that matches the P2E_LINK question.

    For Bib 2, a resource will be generated, but the link information in the resource will be empty because no 856 matched the P2E_LINK question.

    Portfolio or Database

    In the input file where you provide a list of bib records for transforming a physical resource to electronic, you must also specify if the newly-generated resource should be a Portfolio or Database. During the P2E process, all resources must either be categorized as a portfolio or a database (DB).  It is not possible to generate packages during P2E processing, since packages require at least one portfolio.   A database is essentially a zero-title package.  Post migration, when you add portfolios to the db, you can change them to type 'package'.

    Remember that all of the resources generated from P2E are migrated as local, meaning they are not linked to the CZ/Knowledge Base entry for the resource.  If you want the resource to be linked to the CZ, then you must either do it manually after go-live, or don't migrate the resource via P2E and migrate it from your link resolver instead.  For more information on making a decision about where to migrate a resource from (P2E or link resolver), see Electronic Resource Migration General

    Portfolio: an individual title/resource.  In Alma, portfolios can be standalone or part of a package.  In P2E, portfolios may only be migrated as standalone with no relationship to any package.   If portfolios in your ILS are actually part of a package, it is recommend to start managing the portfolio as part of the package in Alma. Post-migration, you can associate the standalone portfolios that were created as a result of the p2e process with the package (local e-collection) in Alma. The advantages of managing resources at the package level are that any information about the package that changes will affect all resources, such as license and access information. You need only manage this information once at the package level instead of multiple times at the portfolio level. 

    Database: Databases are a type of “Electronic Collection,” but don't have portfolios, and are available to be published as soon as they are defined by a URL and an associated unsuppressed bibliographic record.

    When a resource is generated in P2E, no service is created.

    For more information on these entities in Alma, see Managing Electronic Resources.

    How many e-resources are generated?

    If the bib listed in the p2e file is suppressed, then no e-resources are generated.

    If the bib listed in the p2e file has no electronic inventory, either because there is no inventory at all or because the inventory present is not in an electronic location, then an e-resource is generated based on information in the bib only.    Note: if there are multiple 856s on a single bib, multiple e-resources could be generated, see Multiple providers/links on the same bib, below.

    If the bib listed in the p2e file has inventory in an electronic location, then an e-resource is generated for each one found.  If there are three items in an electronic location, then three e-resources are generated.  The inventory is removed during the p2e process.  In this case, it appears that the inventory is transformed from physical to electronic. Note:  more than one e-resource could be generated for each inventory found if multiple 856s are on the same bib, see Multiple providers/links on the same bib below.

    Multiple providers/links on the same bib
    There may be cases where there are multiple providers for the same bibliographic resource.  This may happen, for example, if a journal is available from multiple e-collections subscribed to by the institution. 
    If all of the linking information (typically in 856 tags) is provided in the bibliographic record, and there is a source inventory record for each provider/link, then the p2e program is not able to determine which linking information matches which source inventory record.    In other words, we don't know which 856 matches which inventory.  In this case, the p2e program generates an e-inventory record for each item *and* each 856 tag found.
    As an example, a bib record with the following 856 tags will have three e-inventory records created for each incoming inventory record.  If there are multiple inventory records on the bib identified by the P2E program, for example two holding records both in an electronic location, then the above tags, if they are all on the bib record, will result in six resources created for this bib. 
    856    41 |u http://accesslink.edu/1 |3 Emerald |z Campus connection required
    856    41 |u http://accesslink.edu/2 |3 LexisNexis |z  Campus connection required
    856    41 |u  http://accesslink.edu/3 |3 Swets |z (1992)- (No full text for latest year)
    This situation is likely to be more common where libraries are managing multiple e-accesses for the same resource at the Bib-field level rather than associating e-access information separately at the holdings level. 
    To avoid this situation, customers may do one of the following: 
    •  provide the 856 information in the holding record which will be transformed to the e-inventory record.  In this case, the inventory record can be directly linked with the 856 in the holding.  If there are three holding records, with the 856s in the individual holding records, then only three e-inventory records will be created, and the 856 information will be taken from the holding record. 
    •  if all e-inventory is in the same location, leave all 856s in the bib and provide only one incoming inventory record
    Multiple fields which contain linking information
    Sometimes an institution may manage multiple e-accesses at the bib-field level using multiple fields.  For example, there may be tags such as the following for three separate providers, where the notes and providers are not matched to the linking information:
    856    41 |u http://accesslink.edu/1
    856    41 |u http://accesslink.edu/2
    856    41 |u  http://accesslink.edu/3
    856    41  |3 Emerald |z Campus connection required
    856    41  |3 LexisNexis |z Campus connection required
    856    41 |3 Swets |z (1992)- (No full text for latest year)
    The above case will result in the same note and provider being applied to all resources created for this bib.  The non-matched notes are applied to *each* resource created.  In order to avoid all notes being copies to each e-inventory record created, provide all of the linking information in the same field.  Alternately, ensure the provider (here subfield $3) is provided in both fields, in which case the fields can be matched.

    Material Types for E-Resources

    When the electronic resource is generated from an item, the electronic material type is derived from the item’s material type. When the electronic resource is generated from a bibliographic or holdings record, the material type is generated by consulting the LDR of the bibliographic or holdings record. First, the Alma physical bibliographic material type is determined based on the Fields that Identify the Bibliographic Material Type table on the Searching in the Repository page. Then, that value is mapped to the E-Material type based on the following mapping by the P2E process:

    Print material type

    Electronic material type

    ARTORIG

    OTHERVM

    ARTREPRO

    OTHERVM

    AUDIOCASSETTE

    RECORD

    BOOK

    BOOK

    CALC

    OTHERVM

    CD

    CDROM

    CDROM

    CDROM

    CHARG

    OTHERVM

    CHART

    OTHERVM

    DATABASE

    DATABASE

    DIORAMA

    OTHERVM

    DISK

    OTHERVM

    DISSERTATION

    DISSERTATION

    DVD

    VIDEO

    DVDRM

    VIDEO

    FICHE

    OTHERVM

    FILM

    OTHERVM

    FILMREEL

    VIDEO

    FILMSTRIP

    OTHERVM

    FLASHCARD

    OTHERVM

    FLIPV

    OTHERVM

    FSADT

    OTHERVM

    GAME

    OTHERVM

    GRAPHIC

    OTHERVM

    HEAD

    OTHERVM

    IPAD

    OTHERVM

    ISSBD

    JOURNAL

    ISSUE

    JOURNAL

    JOURNAL

    JOURNAL

    KIT

    OTHERVM

    LPTOP

    OTHERVM

    LRDSC

    VIDEO

    MANUSCRIPT

    MANUSCRIPT

    MAP

    MAP

    MASTERTHESIS

    DISSERTATION

    MICROFORM

    OTHERVM

    MICROSLIDE

    OTHERVM

    MODEL

    OTHERVM

    OTHER

    OTHERVM

    PHDTHESIS

    DISSERTATION

    PICTURE

    OTHERVM

    PLAYAWAY

    OTHERVM

    REALIA

    OTHERVM

    RECORD

    RECORD

    SCORE

    SCORE

    SLIDE

    OTHERVM

    TECHDRAWING

    OTHERVM

    TOY

    OTHERVM

    TRANSPARENCY

    OTHERVM

    VIDEOCASSETTE

    VIDEO

    VIDEODISC

    VIDEO

    VRECORD

    VIDEO

    The logic for DB  is very similar to that of portfolios, except that in these cases, the inventory type output and related order types are a different type, since Alma databases and packages (e-collections) and their orders have different functional behavior than portfolios/standalones. 

    Orders associated with transformed e-resources

    After the inventory level for the resource is identified, the system then checks whether a purchase order is associated with the inventory record. If it is, the system converts it to a matching electronic type order. 
    Alma allows one order per inventory record. When more than one order is identified for a particular record, migration processing will prefer an open and recent order first, where the order is in an electronic location. Other orders will relate to the e-order, but may remain categorized as physical.The most recent open purchase order associated with this bibliographic record becomes electronic as well.
    The following criteria are used to determine the best order:
     - attached at the identified inventory level (item, holding) 
     - in an electronic location preferred - if none found, will use order in a non-electronic location if only one order is attached. 
     - if none found, will move up to bib level orders
     - when multiple orders in an electronic location are found within a given level (holding/item or bib), then the best order is selected based on status, and if multiples are in the same status, then the send date and approval dates are checked (most recent preferred).  
     - an order in a physical location is only used if there is only one order
    The following are the analogous e-order types for the input Physical order types and e-inventory types defined in the P2E input. As mentioned above, Alma migration identifies only one order to be transformed to electronic with each physical resource.   
    The following table shows the map of physical order types to the electronic order type.
    P Order Type E Inventory E Order type
    Print * One Time Portfolio Electronic * One Time
    Print * One Time E-Collection (Database) E-Collection * One Time
    Print * Subscription Portfolio Electronic * Subscription
    Print * Subscription E-Collection (Database) E-Collection * Subscription
    Print * Standing Order Portfolio Electronic * Standing Order
    Print * Standing Order E-Collection (Database) E-collection * Subscription
    The 'Other Services' Purchase Order type is not listed here because it should only be used on non-inventory orders, and by definition an order with electronic inventory has inventory.
     

    P2E Illustrated Examples

    Here are some illustrated examples of P2E processing:
    1. Two holdings, one is electronic
    P2E functionality: Holding with Electronic Location will be identified as the entity to convert to electronic.  Electronic portfolio will be generated and that holding record will be deleted.  856 from the Holding with Electronic location will be used.  856 from Bib A will not be used because we already found an 856 in the identified holding record. HOL with Physical location will be ignored/migrated as is.
    2. Two holdings, one is electronic, and the electronic holding does not have an 856 but the bib does
    P2E Functionality: Holding with Electronic Location will be identified as the entity to convert to electronic.  Electronic portfolio will be generated and that holding record will be deleted. There is no 856 in the identified holding record, so 856 from Bib record will be used. HOL with Physical location will be ignored/migrated as is.
    1. One physical holding
    P2E functionality: No holding record is identified as electronic. Electronic portfolio will be generated based on the bibliographic record only. This will appear as if an electronic record is being ‘generated’. 856 from bib record will be used. HOL with Physical location will be ignored/migrated as is.

    Troubleshooting

    Q: Why a database is not active after P2E?

    A: Check for the following:

    1. Database has a URL added to the "Electronic Collection Level URL" - If there is no URL the database will be marked as not active
    2. Database "Additional descriptive information" is linked to a BIB - If there is not BIB, the database will be marked as not active
    3. The BIB is not suppressed from publication - If the BIB is suppressed, the database will be marked as not active
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