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    Appendix: Managing Citation Styles

    Citation styles define formats for how references appear in a document. RefWorks comes with thousands of out-of-the-box citation styles, including hundreds from the open source Citation Style Language (CSL) project. You can edit all out-of-the-box styles, and you can create your own styles and optionally share them with your institution.

    Each style can contain multiple formats:

    • Bibliography Format – How the reference appears in a bibliography.
    • Citation Format – How the reference appears inline in the document text.
    • Footnote Format – How the reference appears as a footnote or end note.

    You manage citation styles on the Citation styles page (Create Bibliography > Citation Style Editor).

    citation_styles.png

    Citation Styles

    The styles on this page include out-of-the-box styles created by Ex Libris, out-of-the-box CSL styles, styles shared with you by other users of your institution, and personal styles that you have created or duplicated from any of the above.

    To view a style, locate and select the style. When viewing a style, you can edit the style. If you are viewing an out-of-the-box style or a style shared with you, after editing the style you can save it as a personal style; in this way your changes do not affect other users.

    ff you are an administrator, you can define default styles for your users and you can share your own personal citation styles as institution styles. See the RefWorks Admin Guide.

    Editing Citation Styles

    The process of editing a style depends on whether you are editing a CSL style or any other style.

    Editing CSL Citation Styles

    To edit a CSL citation style:
    1. On the Citation styles page (Create Bibliography > Citation Style Editor), locate and select the style. A simple style details page appears.

      citation_styles_details.png

      Citation Style CSL, Details
    2. To edit the style, select Citation Style Visual Editor. You are directed to the CSL's website where you can edit the style using their interactive visual editing tool. For more information about this tool, follow their on-screen instructions.

      citation_styles_details.png

      Citation Style CSL, Details
    3. After saving the style, you can download it for uploading to RefWorks.

    Editing Non-CSL Citation Styles

    When editing an out-of-the-box style or a style shared with you, you save your changes as a new, personal style (you cannot actually edit the shared style). Some additional options (noted below) are available when editing a personal style.

    To edit a reference style:
    1. On the Citation styles page (Create Bibliography > Citation Style Editor), locate and select the style. A page with style details appears.

      citation_styles_details.png

      Citation Styles, Details

      This page has six main areas:

      • 1 – The format of this style that you are currently viewing/editing: Bibliographic, Citations, or Footnotes.
      • 2 – The reference type of this style that you are currently viewing/editing: Generic, Journal Article, and so forth.
      • 3 – The language of this style that that you are currently viewing/editing,
      • 4 – A sample reference using the current configuration (format, reference type, and language).
      • 5 – The fields currently selected to appear in the reference (depending on the format, reference type, and language).
      • 6 – Formatting panes for a) the entire reference (depending on the format) and b) each field currently selected to appear in the reference.
    2. When editing a personal citation style, you can rename the style: double-click the style name or select Options > Rename.
    3. Select the format, reference type, and language to edit. You can remove reference types and languages by selecting the trash can when hovering over the entry. You can add reference types and languages by selecting + in the relevant area.

      citation_styles_details_add_reference_type.png

      Add Reference Type

      citation_styles_details_add_language_group.png

      Add Alternative Language Group

      Select the reference type to add or enter the language to add. Select whether to start with a blank configuration or copy the configurations of another type or language (recommended). Select Add when you are done. The type or language is added to the relevant pane.

      Every citation style must have, at least, a definition for one format in the Generic reference type and the default language.
    4. In the fields bar (5), drag and drop the fields to change the order. Select + to add a new field or to add plain text to the reference. Select a field or text box and then select the X in the box to remove the field or text. When you select a field or text box, the element's configuration expands in the formatting panes (6).
    5. In the formatting panes area, edit the entire reference, depending on the selected format.

      citation_styles_details_bibliography_settings.png

      Bibliography Settings

      citation_styles_details_citations_settings.png

      Citations Settings

      citation_styles_details_footnotes_settings.png

      Footnotes Settings

      For information about the various options, see the following section.

    6. Select each field or text title to edit the element, as required. For information about the various options, see the following section.
    7. When editing a personal citation style that was a duplicate of another style, you can revert your style back to the one that your duplicated: select Options > Revert to original and select Yes in the confirmation dialog box.
    8. If you are editing an out-of-the-box style or a style shared with you, select Save a Copy to save your changes as a new personal style. If you are editing a personal style, select Save to save your changes.

    Field Parameters

    The full list of fields is available at RefWorks Reference Fields and Types. The following table presents any non-obvious parameters for these fields. Hover your mouse over the parameters in the UI to see tooltips with additional information about them.

    For any text parameter, use \t to indicate a tab and \n to indicate a new line.
    Citation Style Field Parameters
    Field Parameters Notes
    Bibliography Settings
    • Bibliography title – The title to appear above the entire bibliography.
    • Use numbered list – Whether to use numbers for each reference in the bibliography. When selected, you can also configure text to appear before and after each number. Numbering starts at 1.
    • Add to reference – Text to appear before and/or after each reference.
    • After bibliography – Text to appear after the entire bibliography.
    • Include empty fields in reference output – Select to include an empty string (and any configured text elements) in a reference for a missing field.
    • Apply APA rules for Electronic Source field inclusion – See tooltip for this field.
     
    Citations Settings
    • Citation Format – Text to appear before and/or after the reference.
    • Sort – The order in which to include multiple references in succession.
    • Use only reference numbers in citations – Select to include only the bibliography number, instead of the entire formatted reference. To handle number ranges, configure Use number ranges, as well.
    • Use APA citation format – See tooltip for this field.
     
    Footnote Settings
    • Note separator – How to separate notes if you cite them together. For example, to cite 12 use ; as a separator.
    • Include references in bibliography – Whether any citation cited as a footnote is automatically included as a reference in the bibliography. If not selected, only items added in citation format or explicitly added to the bibliography are included in the bibliography.
     
    all fields
    • Include field – Whether to always include this field, or only for physical or electronic citations.
    • Add text – Before and/or after the field text.
    • Comment – Internal note about this field (does not appear in the reference).
     
    numeric fields, including Publication (Year), Volume, Edition, and so forth
    • Add suffix – Whether to use ordinal form of the number.
     
    text fields, including Title, and so forth
    • Letter case – How to capitalize the field text.
     
    name fields, including Authors, Translators, Editors, and so forth
    • For each author – Before and/or after the field text.
    • Separators – Between authors.
    • First Author – Special formatting for first author, only.
     
    text elements Edit the text element, as required. Common text elements include parentheses – ( or ) – or hyphens.

    Creating or Deleting Personal Citation Styles

    You can create or delete personal citation styles. You cannot delete out-of-the-box styles or styles shared by other users at your institution.

    To create a citation style:

    The easiest way to create a citation style is to edit an existing style, as described in Editing Non-CSL Citation Styles. For non-personal styles, edit the style and select Options > Duplicate and then enter the new style name. If you select Save a copy, RefWorks duplicates the style with a default name. Otherwise, perform the following procedure.

    1. On the Citation styles page (Create Bibliography > Citation Style Editor), select New style ... The Create citation style pane appears.

      citation_styles_details_footnotes_settings.png

      Create Citation Style
    2. Select an existing style to copy the initial formatting for your new style (recommended). Otherwise, clear the checkbox Copy settings from existing style.
    3. Enter a name for the new style.
    4. Select Create. Continue with editing the style as described in Editing Non-CSL Citation Styles.
    To delete a personal citation style:

    While editing the style (see Editing Non-CSL Citation Styles), select Options > Delete and select Yes in the confirmation dialog box.