The Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) is a U.S. company that provides collective copyright licensing services for users of copyrighted materials.
The use and sharing of copyrighted materials are governed by law. An institution that wants to use such materials must obtain, and usually pay for, permission from the copyright holder: the publisher, or an agency that represents the publisher and facilitates the copyright clearance process, such as the CCC. Academic institutions are generally eligible for lower copyright usage rates than other organizations, as long as the copyrighted material is provided only to the students enrolled in a particular course.
Leganto provides an integrated suite of features to simplify the process of clearing copyrights with the CCC.
When a resource that an instructor requests for a course is not available electronically through the library, you can easily check whether the CCC handles permissions for that resource and how much a license for it costs. Leganto displays this information without requiring you to access and search for the resource on the CCC website.
You then determine who pays the copyright fee: the library (a payment method known as funded) or the students (non-funded).
Both Ex Libris and you must enable non-funded licenses. When not enabled, all features related to non-funded licenses are unavailable.
For funded resources, the library benefits from the Leganto pay-per-use (PPU) feature, which enables the library to pay only for the students who actually access the resource. According to current Leganto usage data, about 30% of students download any given course resource. When paying only for the students who access the resource, the library can lower its spending on copyright licensing by as much as 70%. For example, if an instructor assigns a reading which costs $4.20 per student to a class of 50 students, and only 30% of them (15 students) download the material, the library pays $63 ($4.20 × 15 students). if the library had directly licensed the material from the CCC (not through Leganto), the CCC would have charged for each student in the class. Leganto pricing for materials licensed through the CCC is determined by the following calculation: (Number of pages x Price per page) + $0.45 = Total Price.
If you choose to license the material as non-funded, each student who accesses the resource pays $4.20 plus a small PayPal processing fee.
The library tracks issued licenses, resource usage, and the cost savings that result from using the integrated Leganto features. The instructor sees similar information for each resource licensed using pay-per-use.
For licenses funded by the library, Ex Libris issues a quarterly report on the usage and copyright clearance costs of all licensed materials. On the basis of this report, Ex Libris bills the institution for the copyright clearance fees and transfers the payment to the CCC (at no extra cost to the institution).
Additional features summary:
- Materials licensed through the CCC are available to students in Leganto as uploaded materials. Note that CCC does not provide access to materials; you must already have the materials and be able to upload them (typically as PDF documents) to Alma/Leganto as citations.
- Librarians can select from a list of matching CCC licenses based on a title or ID search.
- For licenses restricted to a limited number of transactions, Leganto removes the access link to the material after this number is reached.
- CCC licenses automatically expire a month after a course becomes inactive, or after six months from the day the license was obtained, whichever comes first. User information is anonymized once the license expires.
- In Alma, librarians can view transactions by item or by course. In Leganto, instructors can view the price of each item, as well as the total cost of materials in a reading list and the total amount spent as a result of student access in real time. For funded licenses, students do not see the material cost (or pay for the materials).
- For non-funded licenses, students can add items to a shopping cart. At any time, students can pay for all licenses in the cart using their Paypal account, after which the materials are available to them.
- Ex Libris bills the institution each quarter for total access to all funded materials for all courses. The bill is sent as an invoice and enters into Alma invoice processing.
- When rolling over courses, licenses for materials are rolled over but set to inactive. You can run a job to activate all of these licenses.
Enabling Integration with the CCC
To enable integration with CCC, and to enable non-funded licenses, contact Ex Libris support.
After Ex Libris enables non-funded licenses for your institution, you must also enable them.
To enable non-funded licenses:
- Open the PPU Non-Funded Agreement page (Configuration Menu > Fulfillment > Copyright Management > PPU Non-Funded Agreement). This link only appears after Ex Libris has enabled both CCC and non-funded licenses for your institution.
PPU Non-Funded Agreement Page
- Enter true in the Parameter Value.
- Read the agreement and select the checkbox signaling your agreement.
- Select Save. Non-funded PPU licenses are enabled,
After enabling PPU, several menu options are added to the Alma persistent menu under Fulfillment > PPU Licensing.
Licensing Items Using the CCC
You can license items through CCC (when CCC has an available license), view the license attached to a citation, and remove a license from a citation if it has not already been used (there are no transactions associated with it).
Attaching a CCC License to a Citation
To attach a license to a citation:
- On the Edit Reading List page (see Managing Citations), select Find a Pay-Per-Use License in the row actions list for a citation of type book, electronic book, book chapter, electronic article, journal, or document. The Search Resource page appears.
You can also access this page by navigating to Fulfillment > PPU Licensing > Search Resource. However, you cannot attach licenses to citations when accessing the page using this link.Search Resource PageThis page lists all matching licenses for items in the CCC according to the ID or title you enter in the secondary search box. If the ID was defined for the citation, the list is pre-filtered according to the ID. Otherwise, the list is pre-filtered according to the title.Each row represents a license. The columns include:
Rights - Whether the license can be attached to the citation. Possible values for this field include GRANTED, DENIED, CURRENTLY NOT AVAILABLE, SPECIAL ORDER, and PUBLIC DOMAIN, PERMISSION NOT REQUIRED.
- To use a license of type PUBLIC DOMAIN, PERMISSION NOT REQUIRED, no further action is required.
- To use a special order license, select Special order from CCC and follow the instructions on the CCC website.
- Otherwise, only licenses of type GRANTED allow for licensing the citation in Alma/Leganto.
- Max Users Allowed - Normally the number of transactions for a license is limited to the number of students in the course. If there is a value in this column, the number of transactions is limited to the value listed in this column or the number of students listed in the course, whichever is lower.
- After locating the desired license, select Get Price in the row actions list for the license. The Get Price page appears.
Get Price Page
- The year of publication may be prefilled incorrectly. Enter a valid year (see Publication Year in the page header for the valid year or range of years).
- Enter the range of pages of the resource, for example 2-10.
- Select Get Price. If the information you entered is valid, the page refreshes with the pricing information.
Get Price Page with Pricing InformationNote that the above figure shows results from the CCC demo server. The terms from the live CCC server will be different, and sandbox Alma environments will display a higher total price than production environments.The key field is Total Price, which is (the number of pages x the Price per page) + $0.45. The price is in USD. For funded licenses, each transaction will cost the institution this amount. For non-funded licenses, the total price is the amount each student will pay for the resource. The PayPal processing fee is added to the Total Price.
- For Payment Method, select Funded or Non Funded. For information about these options, see the Overview.
- To accept the license, select Accept & License. The license is associated with the citation. The citation's copyright status changes to Approved.
Viewing CCC Licenses in Alma
After a CCC license is associated with a citation, you can view the license for the citation: on the Edit Reading List page (see Managing Citations), select View License in the row actions list for a citation. The Copyright Licenses page appears with the license pre-selected in the filter.
To view all licenses for a course, select View Licenses in the row actions list for a course on the Reports page (see Viewing Reports).
To view all licenses, open the Copyright Licenses page directly (Fulfillment > PPU Licensing > PPU Licenses).
Copyright Licenses Page
Each row contains a license associated with a citation. You can enter a search string and select a search type in the secondary search. For price range, you can enter a range (such as 2-10) to match all licenses whose pay-per-use price falls within the range.
Key columns on this page include:
- Price - The price per transaction (view). This price is paid only once per student.
- Number of Transactions - The total number of students that have viewed the resource.
- Actual Spent - Price x Number of Transactions.
- Date - The date that the license was associated with the citation.
- Status - Whether the license is active. If not active, students are not able to view the resource. A license becomes inactive once the maximum number of users is reached (see the next column) or after a certain date (a month after the course becomes inactive, or after six months from the day the license was obtained, whichever comes first).
- Payment Method - FUNDED for funded licenses, PAYPAL for non-funded licenses.
- Max Users (hidden by default) - If defined by the license. Note that the number of transactions for a license is limited to the number of students in the course. If there is a value in this column, the number of transactions is limited to the value listed in this column or the number of students listed in the course, whichever is lower.
- Pages Requested (hidden by default) - The number of pages in the resource, which was defined when the license was created.
Removing a CCC License
Once a license has any transactions, it cannot be removed.
To remove a CCC license:
On the Copyright Licenses page (Fulfillment > PPU Licensing > PPU Licenses; see Viewing CCC License Information for a Citation), select Delete in the row actions list. The status of the license changes to DELETED. The citation's copyright status changes to Not Determined.
Viewing CCC Licensed Resources in Leganto
Once the reading list is published, the student can view a funded resource in the reading list.
Pay-Per-Use in Leganto, Student
For a funded resource, the institution is charged only once for all accesses to the same resource by a single student, no matter how many times the student accesses that resource.
For a non-funded resource, the student sees the option to purchase the resource.
Pay-Per-Use Non-Funded in Leganto: Student
If the student selects Add to Cart, the resource is added to their personal shopping cart, which the student can view by selecting the shopping cart icon at the top right of the page (the cart appears only if there is at least one item in it).
Pay-Per-Use Non-Funded: Shopping Cart
The student can remove items from the cart or purchase the items. Note that Leganto adds the PayPal processing fee to the total. If the student orders multiple items, there is a small discount in PayPal fees, which is noted in the cart. After purchasing the resources, the student can download the same as for funded resources. Once the student has purchased a resource, he or she will see only the download link and will not be prompted to pay for the same resource again for the duration of the course.
When the instructor views the list, the instructor sees the download link as well as the cost per use and whether the resource is institution funded or student funded. In addition, the instructor sees the total cost for the reading list (the sum total of all pay-per-use fees, funded and non-funded, in the reading list) as well as how many transactions have already occurred.
Pay-Per-Use in Leganto, Instructor
Instructor accesses to a resource do not count as transactions and the institution is not charged for them.
You can view the transactions (selects by students to view CCC licensed material) for CCC licensed material. To view the transactions for a specific license, on the Copyright Licenses page (Fulfillment > PPU Licensing > PPU Licenses), select View Transactions in the row actions list for a license. The Transactions page appears with the license pre-selected in the filter.
To view all transactions for a course, select View Transactions in the row actions list for a course on the Reports page (see below).
To view all transaction, open the Transactions page directly (Fulfillment > PPU Licensing > Transactions).
As a reminder, only one transaction is recorded for each resource for each student. The second and subsequent times that a student accesses the same resource does not result in a transaction.
Each row contains a transaction. You can filter the results by the secondary search or by date range.
Key columns on this page include:
- License ID - Select to open the Copyright Licenses page, filtered for this license.
- Citation Title - The total number of students that have viewed the resource.
- Student - The user that initiated the transaction. User information is anonymized once the license expires.
- Licensor - Currently not used.
- Course - Select to view the course information.
- Price - The price for the transaction.
- Date - The date of the transaction.
To view more transaction details, select View in the row actions list for a transaction. The Transaction Details page appears.
Transaction Details Page
You can view the transactions for each course on the Reports page (Fulfillment > PPU Licensing > Reports).
The Reports page lists all courses. You can filter the list using the secondary search, just as you can do on the Courses page (see Managing Courses). In addition, you can use the Generate Report By filter to filter the list by dates and/or transactions, as follows:
- If you select Course as the filter value, select a date range in the date range selection box that appears to view only courses whose start and end dates fall within the selected date range.
- If you select Transactions as the filter value, only courses with at least one transaction appear in the list. In addition, you can select a date range in the date range selection box that appears to view only courses whose start and end dates fall within the selected date range.
Key columns on this page include:
- Actual Spent - Sum, for all licenses, of (price of each transaction x the number of transactions of that license)
- # of Transactions - The total number of students that have viewed all licensed resources for the course
- # of Licenses - The total number of licenses for the course
- Max Possible Spend - The total price for all licenses of the course, if you would have bought them up front
- Savings - Max Possible Spend - Actual Spent
Use the row actions to view licenses (View Licenses) or transactions (View Transactions) for the course.
Renewing PPU Licenses After a Course Rollover
When rolling over courses (see Leganto Course Rollover), licenses for materials are rolled over but set to inactive. You can run a job to activate all of these licenses on the Renew PPU License page (Fulfillment > PPU Licensing > Renew PPU Licenses).
Renew PPU Licenses Page
To run the job:
- On the Renew PPU License page, enter the following information:
- License Starting on or After / License Starting on or Before (optional) - You can limit the licenses that are renewed to only those starting after or before the selected dates.
- On Specific Course (optional) - You can limit the licenses that are renewed to only associated with the selected course.
- Select Run Renew License Job. A RENEW_PPU_LICENSE job runs to renew the licenses. You can view the job's progress on this page or on the Monitor Jobs page (see Viewing Running Jobs and Viewing Completed Jobs). The job report includes a list of licenses found, renewed, and failed to renew.